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School attendance in the Czech Republic is compulsory from the age of 6 to 15. Most children attend state schools, but there are also newly established private and church schools. Education at state schools up to 18 or 19 is free of charge but students at secondary schools have to pay for their textbooks. Private and church schools charge school fees. All schools are coeducational. Children in our school system do not wear uniforms. Handicapped children are educated separately.

The school year starts on 1st September and ends on 30th June of the following year. The school year is divided into two terms (September-January, February-June). A school day is different at different types of schools. The average number of lessons at a secondary school is around thirty a week, primary schools have fewer lessons, while specialised schools often have more. Classes begin between 8 and 8.15 and there are from 4 to 6 lessons in a row, followed by a lunch break, usually 45 minutes long, which is one period, and then afternoon classes. Afternoon classes end between 4 and 5 at the latest. Breaks between the lessons last from 5 to 15 minutes.

Pupils and students are evaluated by marks from 1 to 5, 1 is the best, 5 is the worst. Each term students get their school report with marks from both compulsory and elective subjects.

Education in our country includes these stages: pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary.

Pre-school education is provided by crèches for children up to 3 years of age and nursery schools for children aged 3 to 6. Not many children attend crèches but quite a lot of them attend kindergartens. At the age of 6 children start to attend primary schools and they stay there until 15. At the age of 15 the pupils transfer from primary to secondary schools. Some pupils, whose parents wish them to, can transfer to grammar schools at the age of 11 after they have passed an entrance examination.


At the age of 15 pupils can choose among a variety of secondary schools:

a) grammar schools with general and rather academic education which prepare students for university study,

b) special schools which include technical colleges, specialised in building, chemistry, engineering etc., business academies, agricultural schools, nursing schools, music and art schools which offer professional education and

c) vocational schools training would-be workers for practical jobs.


Secondary education usually lasts for 4 years and at grammar and specialised schools it is finished with a school-leaving examination which is required by all universities and colleges. This examination is taken in four subjects at grammar schools (Czech, a foreign language and two optional subjects chosen from foreign languages, science subjects or humanities) and in five or more subjects at specialised schools. The examination is held in May and is mostly oral except Czech language in which an essay is written about a month before. The oral part of the exam takes about two hours, half an hour for each subject. A student chooses one of 25 to 30 topics by drawing a number and after 15 minutes' preparation he/she speaks on the topic and solves given tasks. After the graduates have passed their school-leaving exam they receive the School-Leaving Certificate and they can apply for study at universities and colleges.

Universities and colleges provide tertiary education which lasts from 4 to 6 years. Each secondary school graduate can apply for as many universities and colleges as he/she likes but before he/she is accepted they have to pass an entrance examination in the subjects in which the university specialises. The examination consists of a written test and an interview.

Every large regional town in our country is a seat of a university or college now, but the oldest ones are the most renowned. Our oldest university is Charles University in Prague, founded by Charles IV in 1348 as the first Central and East European university. Other notable universities are Masaryk University in Brno, Palacký University in Olomouc and Purkyně University in Ustí nad Labem. Prague has also one of the two technical universities in our country (ČTU), the other one is in Brno.

Undergraduates can study a variety of subjects such as economics, foreign trade, architecture, law, journalism, the humanities, foreign languages, medicine, science, music, art, drama, engineering or computer science at various schools e.g. School of Economics or Architecture, Law, Medical or Science Faculty, Faculty of Journalism, Teachers' Training College, Art School, College of Agriculture, technical universities or polytechnics.

The university or college students can enrol at three-year courses for a Bachelor’s Degree or four and five-year courses for a Master’s Degree. Medicine usually takes 6 years. The university or college study is finished with a state examination and every undergraduate also has to write a thesis in order to receive a diploma in a certain field of study. The diploma is handed over at a graduation ceremony. Doctoral Degrees are awarded after other few years of study, which may be also individual, and completion of another thesis.

Full-time university students are expected to bear the expense of their tuition and they also have to pay for their accommodation and board. The students from distant places usually lodge at a hall of residence (dorm). Only a limited number of students get a grant or a scholarship.

For those who do not want to enter the university there are various types of two-year training courses such as for managers, businessmen, social workers, specialised nurses or language experts.



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School buildings in our country look very similar, only their size differs depending on the number of pupils or students attending them. They are usually large buildings with a few floors, often with a sportsground attached. ln the basement or on the ground floor there are cloakrooms with students' lockers, a boiler room, a workshop, a school canteen, sometimes also a fitness centre, a snackbar, a caretaker’s flat or a gymnasium.

On the other floors there are usually long hallways with many doors leading to classrooms, teachers' offices, laboratories, a common room, the head's and deputy head's offices, the administrative office, a school library, a computer room and toilets. The hallways and staircases are decorated with pictures, flowers and there are also notice-boards, some cabinets and glasscases.

All classrooms in the Czech Republic are almost the same. There are large windows opposite the door, many of school desks and chairs with two aisles in between, a blackboard and a shelf with coloured and white chalk, a sponge and a cloth on the front wall, a teacher’s desk, a bookcase, a notice board, a few pictures and a portrait of the president, a wash-basin, a mirror, a thermometer and a waste-paper basket.

Subjects which need special equipment or aids are taught in special classrooms such as a chemistry, biology or physics laboratory, a music and an art room or a gymnasium. For teaching foreign languages a language lab is specially equipped with various audio-visual aids, such as maps, a tape or cassette recorder, a slide or overhead projector, a screen and a video. Some schools also have an assembly hall.

What is a lesson in a Czech school like? After the bell, when the teacher enters the room, the pupils or students stand up to greet him. He makes an entry in the class register, marks absent students and then he starts the lesson with revision of the previous lesson. He examines the pupils individually by asking them to come to the blackboard, they are asked to reckon, do an exercise, explain a problem, respond to teacher’s questions or sometimes the whole class takes a written test.

The performance of the students who excel is usually perfect, they are fluent and creative. Sometimes the performance is rather disappointing both for the teacher and the student alike. The reasons differ from not paying attention in class, not doing homework regularly and copying it in the break before the lesson, relying on one's pretty face, cutting classes and not working consistently and systematically to spoiling one's performance due to nervousness. The results range from excellent, very good, good, and satisfactory to failure.

After examination the teacher explains a new subject matter and practises it with exercises. Before the end of the lesson he sums up the topic and sets assignments for the next lesson. The teachers are supposed to follow the curriculum but they are free to choose textbooks for their students. Some students stay at school after school hours and take part in after-school activities such as singing in the choir, drama club, arts club, reciting club or games.)



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school   [sku:l]


basic school [‘beisik ‘sku:l]

- základní škola

primary school [‘praimәri ‘sku:l]

- základní škola

secondary school [‘sekndri ‘sku:l]

- střední škola

secondary grammar school [...græmә ‘sku:l]

- gymnázium

secondary special school [... ‘spešl ‘sku:l]

- střední odborná škola

secondary nursing school [... ‘nә:siŋ ‘sku:l ]

- střední zdravotnická škola

secondary agricultural school

- střední zemědělská škola

secondary music and art school

- umělecká škola, konzervatoř

business academy [biznis ә‘kædәmi ]

- obchodní akademie

technical college [teknikl ‘kolidž]

- střední průmyslová škola

vocational school [vou’keišәnl ‘sku:l]

- učiliště

crèche  [kreiš]

- jesle

nursery school [nә:sri ‘sku:l ]

- mateřská škola

kindergarten [‘kindә,ga:tn]

- mateřská škola

state school [steit ‘sku:l]

- státní škola

private school [‘praivit ‘sku:l]

- soukromá škola

church school [‘čә:č ‘sku:l]

- církevní škola

special school [‘spešl ‘sku:l)

- zvláštní škola

school for handicapped children [...hændikæpt...]

- škola pro postižené děti

coeducational school [‘kәu,edju’keišәnәl ‘sku:l ]

- smíšená škola

university  [,ju:ni’vә:siti]


college  [‘kolidž]

technická vysoká škola

training course [treiniŋ ‘ko:s ]

nástavba, kurs




education   [,edju’keišn]

vzdělání, vzdělávání

general education [‘dženәrәl ,edjuikeišn]

všeobecné vzdělání

pre-school education  [pri’sku:l ...]

předškolní vzdělávání

primary education   [‘praimәri ...]

základní vzdělání

secondary education   [‘sekndri ....]

střední vzdělání

tertiary education  [‘tәәri ...]

vyšší, vysokoškolské vzdělání

qualification [ kwolifi’keišәn]

kvalifikace, vzdělání




caretaker [‘keә teikә]


class, form, grade [kla:s, fo:m, greid]

třída - skupina žáků

form-master [‘fo:m’ma:stә]

třídní učitel

form-mistress [‘fo:m’mistris]

třídní učitelka

headmaster [‘hed’ma:stә]

ředitel školy

headmistress [‘hed’mistris]

ředitelka školy

deputy headmaster [‘depjuti ‘hed’ma:stә]

zástupce ředitele školy

janitor [džænitә]

školník (am.)

pupil [pju:pl]

žák, žákyně

principal [prinsәpl]

ředitel školy (am.)

schoolfellow [‘sku:l felәu]


schoolmate [‘sku:lmeit]


student [stju:dәnt]

student, studentka

graduate [grædjuit]

absolvent VŠ

undergraduate [,andә‘grædjuit]

posluchač VŠ

teacher [ti:čә]


tutor [tju:tә]

domácí učitel, vychovávatel




subject [sabdžikt]

školní předmět

compulsory [kәm’palsәri]


obligatory [o’bligәtәri]


vocational [vәu’keišәnl]


optional [opšәnl]


elective [i’lektiv]


architecture [a:kitekčә]


arithmetic [ә‘riӨmetik]


art, fine art [a:t, fain a:t]

výtvarná výchova

accounting [ә‘kauntiŋ]


biology [bai’olәdži]


civics [siviks]

občanská nauka

chemistry [kemistri]


computers [kәm’pju:tәz]

výpočetní technika

cookery [kukәri]


crafts {kra:fts]

pracovní vyučování

driving lessons [draiviŋ lesnz]

dopravní výchova

economics [,i:kә‘nomiks]


foreign languages [forin læŋgwidžiz]

cizí jazyky

- Czech [ček]


- English  [iŋgliš]


- French [frenč]


- German [džә:mәn]


- Greek [gri:k]


- Latin [‘lætin]


- Russian [rašәn]


- Spanish [spæniš]


foreign trade [forin treid]

zahraniční obchod

geography [dži’ogrәfi]


health education [helӨ edju’keišәn]

zdravotní výchova

history [histәri]


law [lo:]


literature [litrečә]


mathematics [,mæӨi’mætiks]


metalwork [metlwә:k]

práce v kovodílně

music [‘mju:zik]

hudební výchova

needlework [ni:dlwә:k]

ruční práce

labs [læbz]

laboratorní práce

philosophy [fi’losofi]


physical training [fizikl treiniŋ]

tělesná výchova

psychology [sai’kolәdži]


physics [fiziks]


reading [‘ri:diŋ]


shorthand [‘šo:thænd]


technical drawing [teknikl dro:viŋ]

technické kreslení

tractor driving [træktә draiviŋ]

řízení traktoru

typing [taipiŋ]

psaní strojem

writing [‘raitiŋ]





school year [‘sku:l jә:]

školní rok

term [tә:m]

část školního roku, pololetí,

classes [kla:siz]


lesson [lesn]

vyučovací hodina

lessons [lesnz]


break [breik]


lunch break [lanč breik]

přestávka na oběd

autumn holidays [o:tәm holәdiz]

podzimní prázdniny

Christmas holidays [krismәs holәdiz]

vánoční prázdniny

mid-year holidays [midjә: holәdiz]

pololetní prázdniny

spring holidays [spriŋ holәdiz]

jarní prázdniny

Easter holidays [i:stә holәdiz]

velkonoční prázdniny

summer holidays [samә holәdiz]

letní prázdniny




assembly hall [ә‘sembli ho:l]


basement [‘beismәnt]


blackboard [blækbo:d]


boiler room [boilә ‘rum]


chalk [čo:k]


classroom [‘kla:sru:m]

třída (místnost)

classregister [‘kla:s redžistә]

třídní kniha

cloakroom [‘kloukru:m]


desk [desk]

lavice, psací stůl

dormitory, dorm [ do:mitri]

kolej, internát

gymnasium [džim’neizjәm]


hall of residence [ho:l әv rezidәns]


hallway [ho:lwei]


laboratory, lab [lә‘borәtәri, læb]


biology lab

laboratoř biologie

chemistry lab

chemická laboratoř

computer lab

učebna výpočetní techniky

physics lab

fyzikální laboratoř

typing lab

učebna psaní strojem

locker [lokә]

skříňka v šatně

map [mæp]


notice-board [‘noutisbo:d]

nástěnka, informační tabule

office [‘ofis]


headmaster’s office


deputy headmaster’s office

kancelář zástupce ředitele

secretary’s office


teachers’ offices

kabinety učitelů

overhead projector [әuvәhed prә‘džektә]

zpětný projektor

picture [‘pikčә]


playground [‘pleigraund]


screen [skri:n]

obrazovka, promítací plátno

school cantina [sku:l kænti:n]

školní jídelna

school farm [sku:l fa:m]

školní statek

school garden [sku:l ga:dәn]

školní zahrada

school library [sku:l ‘laibrәri]

školní knihovna

sponge [spandž]


staff room [sta:f rum]


stadium [‘stei’djәm]

stadión, hřiště

store room [‘sto: rum]


wall-chart [‘wol’ča:t]

plakát, obraz, tabule

workshop [‘wә:kšop]


teaching aids [‘ti:čiŋ eids]

učební pomůcky

timetable [‘taim teibl]

rozvrh hodin

training kitchen [‘treiniŋ kičin]

výuková kuchyně




school attendance [...   ә‘tendәns]

školní docházka

school fee [‘sku:l fi:]

školné, poplatek

free of charge [,fri:  әv ča:dž]


mark [ma:k]

známka ve škole

school report [sku:l ri’po:t]


exam [ig’zæm]


exam in three subjects

zkouška ze tří předmětů

an English exam

zkouška z AJ

entry exam [entri ig’zæm]

přijímací zkouška

essay [‘esei]

písemná práce

graduation exam [,grædju’eišәn ig’zæm]

závěrečná zkouška

graduation ceremony [,grædju’eišәn  serimәni]

závěrečná slavnost, promoce

school-leaving exam [sku:l liviŋ ig’zæm]

maturitní zkouška

school-leaving certificate [sku:l liviŋ sә‘tifikit]

maturitní vysvědčení

after-school activities

mimoškolní činnost

club [klab]

klub, kroužek

group [gru:p]

skupina, kroužek

team [ti:m]

sportovní tým, oddíl

thesis [Өi:sis]

diplomová práce

topic [topik]


curriculum [kә‘riklujәm]

osnovy, učivo

degree [di’gri:]

akademická hodnost

homework [hәumwә:k]

domácí úkol





attend [ә‘tend]

navštěvovat školu

be at school

být ve škole

commute [kә‘mju:t]


educate [‘edjukeit]

vzdělávat, vychovávat

enter [entә]

nastoupit do školy

evaluate [i’væljueit]


fail an exam

propadnout u zkoušky

go to school

chodit/jít do školy

graduate from [grædžuet ....]

ukončit školu

last [la:st]


learn [lә:n]

učit se

pass an exam [pa:s]

skládat zkoušky, udělat zkoušku

sit for an entry exam

konat přijímací zkoušku

study [stadi]


take/sit an exam

dělat zkoušku

teach [ti:č]

učit, vyučovat



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Classroom Office Back to the top





Jaké máte vzdělání ?

What qualifications do you have?

- Vystudoval jsem střední školu.

I studied at secondary school.

- Vystudoval jsem gymnázium.

I studied at grammar school.

- Absolvoval jsem chemickou

I graduated from technical college


specializing in chemistry.

Na tuto školu jsem nastoupil v ….

I entered this school in …..

Studia jsem ukončil v roce …

I finished my studies in …

Promoval jsem v roce …

I graduated in ….

V létě promoval.

He graduated in the summer.

Hlásím se na češtinu.

I’m applying (for a place) to study Czech.

Dělám přijímačky.

I’m doing/taking my entrance exams.

Studuji právnickou fakultu.

I study at a faculty of law.

- lékařskou fakultu.

a faculty of medicine.

- pedagogickou fakultu.

a faculty of education.

- ekonomickou fakultu.

a faculty of economics.

- matematicko-fyzikální fakultu.

a faculty of mathematics and physics.

Studuji (na univerzitě) matematiku.

I am studying/reading maths.

Studuji chemii na vysoké škole.

I am doing a degree in chemistry.

Chodím na kurz nemčiny.

I‘m doing/taking a course in German.

Letos dělá zkoušky GCSE.

He’s doing his GCSEs this year.

Letos maturuji.

I’m doing/taking my school-leaving exams this year.

Školu dokončila loni.

She left school last year.

Do které třídy chodí váš syn?

What class is your son in?

Jak se učí váš syn?

How is your son doing at school?

Můj syn se učí dobře.

My son is doing well at school.

- učí se průměrně.

is average.

- neučí se moc dobře.

is not doing very well.

Je to studijní/tvořivý typ.

She is an academic/creative type.

Má talent na jazyky.

He’s got a talent for languages.

Jde/Nejde jí zeměpis.

She is good/bad at geography.

Z biologie dostává dobré známky.

He gets good marks for biology.

Dostává většinou jedničky a dvojky.

She gets mostly ones and twos.

Mladší dceru posílám do jeslí

I send my younger daughter to nursery school

a starší do školky.

and the older one goes to kindergarten.

Nejstarší syn chodí do základní školy.

My oldest son attends primary school.

Jak dlouhé jsou u vás letní prázdniny?

How long are your summer holidays?

U nás trvají dva měsíce.

Our last two month.

Platí se u vás za výuku?

Do you pay for education?


I studied at the secondary school.

She studies at the secondary grammar school.

Peter graduated from the business academy.

I finished my studies in 1995.

We study at secondary school.

He studies at a Faculty of Medicine.

My sister studies at a Faculty of Law.

Our son attends a basic school.

Mary goes to the secondary nursing school.

What class is John in? He is in the fourth class.  He is in class four.

How is your son doing at school? He is doing well at school.  He is average. He is not doing very well.

Do you pay for education? No, education is free of charge at our school. Yes, I have to pay some fee.



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